CBD oil: Effects and side effects

CBD oil is an element of Cannabis indica or Cannabis sativa, the very same plants that grow marijuana when dried. Some claim that CBD oil treats pain, decreases anxiety, and increases appetite in the same way as cannabis does, however without its addictive properties. In treating some forms of seizures, CBD has also shown potential.  

The 2018 Farm Bill passage passed a law allowing for hemp and hemp products to be sold in the U.S. But it doesn’t imply all cannabidiol products extracted from hemp are permissible. It cannot be lawfully used in foods or dietary supplements because cannabidiol has been tested as a new medication. Cannabidiol cannot be used in products for which medicinal claims are made on the market. It is only possible to use cannabidiol in personal care products and only if it includes less than 0.3% THC. But there are already products that contain cannabidiol branded as dietary supplements on the market. The amount of cannabidiol present in such products is often not correctly stated on the packaging of the product.

Since around 2900 B.C., people all over the world have been using cannabis for medical purposes, particularly pain relief. Researchers have indicated that the pain-relieving properties associated with cannabis may be caused by cannabinoids. At present, however, few studies have examined how CBD influences pain individually. A 2018 study reviewed 47 research of using cannabis and cannabinoids for chronic pain other than cancer pain, involving 4,743 individuals. The study found modest indications that, when opposed to placebo groups, cannabinoids alleviate pain. Moreover, studies indicate that with the use of CBD, pain from peripheral neuropathy can also improve. Now in the pipeline are modern clinical studies to independently evaluate CBD for chronic pain, especially neuropathic pain.

CBD demonstrates potential in the treatment of anxiety and depression, suggests a review of research in the journal Neurotherapeutics in 2015 and as show in this page as well: https://www.washingtonian.com/2021/01/11/best-cbd-oil-for-pain/.  As per the researchers, in animal testing, CBD displayed potent anxiolytic (anxiety-relieving) effects, but with counterintuitive findings. The way that CBD works in the brain may give some indication of this response. CBD acts as an agonist in several ways, indicating that when bound to a receptor, it induces an opposite reaction. A positive agonist reaction can be elicited by low doses, whereas high doses overload the brain and cause a compensatory response to counteract the effects of CBD. Men given 300 mg of CBD displayed less anxiety than any of those given a placebo, as per the researchers. Intriguingly, they did not have 100 or 600 mg of CBD oil.

Liver enzymes may also be increased by CBD oil (a marker of liver inflammation). CBD oil should be used with caution by people with liver disease, preferably under the supervision of a physician who can monitor blood liver enzyme levels regularly. Throughout pregnancy and lactation, CBD oil should be prohibited. A 2018 report by the American Academy of Pediatrics advised women during pregnancy to quit marijuana because of the possible risks to the health of an infant. Although it is unknown how CBD helps, it is understood that CBD passes through the placental barrier.

Some medicines, along with some drugs used to treat epilepsy, can interfere with CBD oil. An enzyme called cytochrome P450 (CYP450) that some drugs use for metabolization is inhibited by CBD. CBD can either raise the toxicity or reduce the amount of these drugs by interfering with CYP450.

One CBD item has been approved by the FDA for use in two rare and serious types of epilepsy. They have not authorized any other CBD products for any reason at present.

At this time, the promotion of CBD by marking it as a nutritional supplement or applying it to food is unlawful.